بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Answer to Question
Is The Qur’an Created or Not Created?
To: Inayat Ur Rahman Noori
I want to ask if the Qur‘an is from the Allah’s creations, and why?
Because Iman Abu Hanifa said that everything is Makhlooq (Created) except the Qur’an, it is the speech of Allah.
Can you explain that?
Wa Assalam Alaikum.
Wa Alaikum Assalam Wa Rahmatulah Wa Barakatuh,
With regard to whether the Qur’an is created or not created, the Qur’an is the speech of Allah, and the manner of Allah’s speech (swt) is not comprehensible in terms of how it is. Therefore, the human mind cannot investigate the modality of Allah’s speech; is it created or not created, but rather it is believed in it as it came in the text, so we believe that the Qur’an is Allah’s speech and this is sufficient .
For your information, the discussion of the previous Islamic sects, such as the Mu'tazilah and others, on this subject, is based on logic regarding non-tangible objects. These discussions are incorrect, and they lead to contradictory results because they are not based on the discussion on tangible things. We have explained this in our books:
1- ‘The Islamic Personality’ Volume I - Page 58-61 The Word file (Arabic), Chapter: The Error in the Methodology of the Mutakallimin:
[ …” For example, logically it is said: the Qur’an is the speech of Allah and it is comprised of letters which are arranged and sequenced in existence, and every speech made up of letters arranged and sequenced in existence is recent; the conclusion: the Qur’an is recent and created. This syllogising of premises has led to a conclusion which in inaccessible to the senses; so, the intellect is incapable of inquiring into it (as to its correctness) or judging it. Therefore, it is a hypothetical judgement, not a realistic one over and above it being one of the issues which the intellect has been prohibited from discussing. This is because a discussion of the attributes of Allah is a discussion of His essence, and in no way is it permissible to discuss the essence of Allah”
Yet it is possible to reach, via the same logic, a conclusion contradictory to this one. “Thus, it is said: the Qur’an is the speech of Allah and it is one of its attributes, and any thing that is an attribute of Allah is eternal; the conclusion: that the Qur’an is eternal and not created”. Thus, contradiction in logic is evident in one and the same proposition. Likewise, in many logical propositions that are resultant from the syllogising of comprehensibles upon comprehensibles, a logician reaches conclusions which are utterly contradictory and utterly bizarre. As for the syllogising of the sensorially accessible upon the sensorially accessible, if the premises can be traced back to the senses and the conclusion can be traced back to the senses, the result will be correct…etc.] End of quote.
2- In the book itself - page 126 of the Word file (Arabic), Chapter on the Attributes [Sifat] of Allah (swt):
(That is why the study of all of the Mutakallimun is misplaced and purely mistaken. The attributes of Allah are tawqeefiya (fixed by the Lawgiver). Whatever has been mentioned in the definite texts we have mentioned it according to the extent mentioned in the definite texts and not in anything else. It is not allowed to add an attribute which has not been mentioned and we should not try to explain an attribute with anything other than what has been mentioned in the definite text).
3- In conclusion, the Qur’an is the speech of the Allah (swt); it is not discussed whether it is created or not created, because the discussion on the attributes is a discussion on the Essence, and this is not possible for the mind to discuss, because the Essence of Allah (swt) does not fall under our senses to be discussed by the mind. So, we believe in the attributes of Allah as mentioned in the definitive text without any addition or omission, but as stated in the definitive texts, including:
[هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ هُوَ الرَّحْمَنُ الرَّحِيمُ * هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلَامُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْمُهَيْمِنُ الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ* هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ]
“He is Allah, other than whom there is no deity, Knower of the unseen and the witnessed. He is the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful * He is Allah, other than whom there is no deity, the Sovereign, the Pure, the Perfection, the Bestower of Faith, the Overseer, the Exalted in Might, the Compeller, the Superior. Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him * He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Fashioner; to Him belong the best names. Whatever is in the heavens and earth is exalting Him. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise” [Al-Hashr: 22-24]. As well as other definitive text.
And we believe that the Qur’an is the word of Allah, as in the definitive texts:
[وَإِنْ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ اسْتَجَارَكَ فَأَجِرْهُ حَتَّى يَسْمَعَ كَلَامَ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ أَبْلِغْهُ مَأْمَنَهُ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ]
“And if any one of the polytheists seeks your protection, then grant him protection so that he may hear the words of Allah. Then deliver him to his place of safety. That is because they are a people who do not know” [At-Tawba: 6].
[أمْ يَقُولُونَ افْتَرَى عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِباً فَإِنْ يَشَأِ اللَّهُ يَخْتِمْ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ وَيَمْحُ اللَّهُ الْبَاطِلَ وَيُحِقُّ الْحَقَّ بِكَلِمَاتِهِ إِنَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ]
“Or do they say, "He has invented about Allah a lie"? But if Allah willed, He could seal over your heart. And Allah eliminates falsehood and establishes the truth by His words. Indeed, He is Knowing of that within the breasts” [Ash-Shura: 24].
[لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ * إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْآنَهُ * فَإِذَا قَرَأْنَاهُ فَاتَّبِعْ قُرْآنَهُ * ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا بَيَانَهُ]
“Move not your tongue with it, [O Muhammad], to hasten with recitation of the Qur'an. * Indeed, upon Us is its collection [in your heart] and [to make possible] its recitation. * So when We have recited it [through Gabriel], then follow its recitation. (18) Then upon Us is its clarification [to you]” [Al-Qiyama: 16-19]
[وَاتْلُ مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ كِتَابِ رَبِّكَ لَا مُبَدِّلَ لِكَلِمَاتِهِ وَلَنْ تَجِدَ مِنْ دُونِهِ مُلْتَحَداً]
“And recite, [O Muhammad], what has been revealed to you of the Book of your Lord. There is no changer of His words, and never will you find in other than Him a refuge” [Al-Kahf: 27].
I hope this is sufficient, and Allah is the All Knowing, Most Wise.
Ata Bin Khalil Abu Al-Rashtah
15 Jumada Al-Akhar 1444 AH
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