بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Series of Questions Addressed to Scholar Sheikh Ata Bin Khalil Abu Al-Rashtah,
Ameer of Hizb ut Tahrir through his Fiqhi Facebook Page
Answer to the Question
Explanation of the Concept of Fitna
To: Essam Nbiha
Regarding your statement: "Doesn't any man amongst you have common sense to eradicate those ignorant rulers, and revives the history of the Ansar, and gives us the support in order to establish the Islamic rule, a guided Khilafah "Caliphate" upon the method of Prophethood...?" I would like to point out in the Hadeeth in which the Prophet (saw) said:
إذا رأيتم الناس قد مرجت عهودهم، وخفت أمانتهم، وكانوا هكذا وشبك بين أصابعه، قال: فقمت إليه، فقلت: كيف أفعل عند ذلك، جعلني الله تبارك وتعالى فداك؟ قال: «الزم بيتك، وابك على نفسك، واملك عليك لسانك، وخذ ما تعرف، ودع ما تنكر، وعليك بأمر خاصة نفسك، ودع عنك أمر العامة
"If you witness (the time) people whose contracts are merged and corrupted, and they become untrustworthy, and they became like so" and He (saw) clasped between his fingers (of both hands), and then he said: so I got up to Him (saw) and said: what shall I do then, may Allah (swt) make me sacrificed for you? He (saw) said: "Stay away from them (from the Fitna) and be concerned of your situation, and do not utter that which will not benefit, follow the good that you know and abstain from the evil, and exert effort to be from those who are liberated from the hellfire, and leave the people (if your interaction with them is not productive)."
It is as if there is a contradiction between the command of the Prophet (saw) and what you call us to; May Allah Bring His Blessings on you.
The Hadeeth that you have mentioned is narrated entirely in the Sunan of Abu Dawud as follows:
"حَدَّثَنَا هَارُونُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، حَدَّثَنَا الْفَضْلُ بْنُ دُكَيْنٍ، حَدَّثَنَا يُونُسُ بْنُ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ، عَنْ هِلَالِ بْنِ خَبَّابٍ أَبِي الْعَلَاءِ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي عِكْرِمَةُ، حَدَّثَنِي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ، قَالَ: بَيْنَمَا نَحْنُ حَوْلَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه و سلم، إِذْ ذَكَرَ الْفِتْنَةَ، فَقَالَ: «إِذَا رَأَيْتُمُ النَّاسَ قَدْ مَرِجَتْ عُهُودُهُمْ، وَخَفَّتْ أَمَانَاتُهُمْ، وَكَانُوا هَكَذَا» وَشَبَّكَ بَيْنَ أَصَابِعِهِ، قَالَ: فَقُمْتُ إِلَيْهِ، فَقُلْتُ: كَيْفَ أَفْعَلُ عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ، جَعَلَنِي اللَّهُ فِدَاكَ؟ قَالَ: «الْزَمْ بَيْتَكَ، وَامْلِكْ عَلَيْكَ لِسَانَكَ، وَخُذْ بِمَا تَعْرِفُ، وَدَعْ مَا تُنْكِرُ، وَعَلَيْكَ بِأَمْرِ خَاصَّةِ نَفْسِكَ، وَدَعْ عَنْكَ أَمْرَ الْعَامَّةِ»" انتهى
"Haroon Ibn Abdullah narrated; Al-Fadl Ibn Dukain narrated; Yunus Ibn Abi Ishaq narrated; from Hilal Ibn Khabab Abi Al-A'lla'. That he said, "I'krimah narrated to me; Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn Al-‘Aas narrated to me and said, while we were gathered around the Prophet (saw). He (saw) mentioned Fitna and said, "If you witness (the time) people whose contracts are merged and corrupted, and they become untrustworthy, and they became like so" and He (saw) clasped between his fingers (of both hands), and then he said: so I got up to Him (saw) and said: what shall I do then, may Allah (swt) make me sacrificed for you? He (saw) said: "Stay away from them (from the Fitna), and do not utter that which will not benefit, follow the good that you know and abstain from the evil, and exert effort to be from those who are liberated from the hellfire, and leave the people (if your interaction with them is not productive)." End.
This Hadeeth and other various ones dealing with the subject of Fitna were narrated for the situation where the truth is confused with the falsehood, and the truth is no longer clear... The Shariah rule for the one who becomes confused is to stay away from the Fitna until he is able to distinguish between the truth and falsehood, thereafter he must follow the truth.
The one who ponders at what came in the Hadeeth in meaning and content, will see this clearly... notice the word (وكانوا هكذا) (and they became like so) and the explanation of the narrator of the action when he said: (وَشَبَّكَ بَيْنَ أَصَابِعِهِ) (and He (saw) clasped between his fingers) i.e. that He (saw) joined between the fingers of both His hands which shows that they merged into each other and became mixed, all of which shows the mixing between the truth and falsehood and that they were undistinguishable from each other; in this situation as we mentioned previously, the Shariah rule for this person is to stay away from the Fitna until he is able to distinguish between the truth and falsehood, and then he must follow the path of the truth.
Standing by the truth whether it is by the action of enjoining of good and forbidding of evil, or supporting the oppressed, or the diligent work for seeking the support (Nusra) from the people of power to establish the Islamic State when it is absent... it is a matter obliged by the Shariah evidences, which include:
1- Regarding Enjoining the Good and Forbidding the Evil, including:
Allah (swt) says:
((وَلْتَكُنْ مِنْكُمْ أُمَّةٌ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى الْخَيْرِ وَيَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ))
"And let there be [arising] from you a nation inviting to [all that is] good, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong, and those will be the successful" [Al-i-Imran: 104]
And Allah (swt) says:
((كُنْتُمْ خَيْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ تَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَتَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَر))
"You are the best nation produced [as an example] for mankind. You enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and believe in Allah" [Al-i-Imran: 110]
Ahmad extracted from Abdullah Ibn Amr: I heard the Prophet (saw) say:
«إذا رأيتم أُمتي تَهَابُ الظالم أن تقول له: إنك أنت ظالم، فقد تُوُدِّعَ منهم»
"If you witness my Ummah afraid to account a tyrant, and say (to him): "You are a tyrant", then Allah (swt) shall abandon them"
Abu Dawud extracted: Abu Bakr after praising and thanking Allah (swt): We heard the Prophet (saw) say:
«إِنَّ النَّاسَ إِذَا رَأَوُا الظَّالِمَ فَلَمْ يَأْخُذُوا عَلَى يَدَيْهِ، أَوْشَكَ أَنْ يَعُمَّهُمُ اللَّهُ بِعِقَابٍ»
"If the people witness an oppressor and they do not take him by his hands (to prevent him) then they are close to Allah covering them all with punishment"
At-Tirmidhi extracted from Huthayfah (ra) that the Prophet (saw) said:
«وَالَّذِي نَفْسي بِيَدِهِ، لَتَأْمُرُنَّ بِالمَعْرُوفِ، وَلَتَنْهَوُنَّ عَنْ المُنْكَرِ أَوْ لَيُوشِكَنَّ اللهُ أَنْ يَبْعَثَ عَلَيْكُمْ عِقَابًا مِنْهُ ثُمَّ تَدْعُوْنَهُ فَلا يُسْتَجَابُ لَكُمْ»
"By the One in Whose Hand lies my soul, you must order the ma'roof and forbid the munkar, or Allah will be about to send a punishment, then you will supplicate to Him and you will not be answered".
At-Timidhi extracted as well as Abu Dawud from Ibn Mas'ood (ra), he said: The Prophet (saw) said,
كَلاَّ، وَاللهِ لَتَأمُرُنَّ بالمَعْرُوفِ، وَلَتَنْهَوُنَّ عَنِ المُنْكَرِ، وَلَتَأخُذُنَّ عَلَى يَدِ الظَّالِمِ، وَلَتَأطِرُنَّهُ عَلَى الحَقِّ أطْرًا، وَلَتَقْصُرُنَّه عَلَى الحَقِّ قَصْرًا، أَوْ لَيَضْرِبَنَّ اللهُ بقُلُوبِ بَعْضِكُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ، ثُمَّ ليَلْعَننكُمْ كَمَا لَعَنَهُمْ
"Seize the hands of the oppressor and hold and restrict him to the Truth exclusively on the right, or Allah will strike your hearts against each other and you will be cursed as they (Bani Israel) were cursed."
Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi extracted from Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudary (ra) from the Prophet (saw) that He (saw) said:
«أفْضَلُ الجِهَادِ كَلِمَةُ عَدْلٍ عِنْدَ سُلْطَانٍ جَائرٍ»
"The best jihad is a just word before the tyrant ruler".
Nasa'I narrated from Abu Abdullah Tariq Ibn Shihab Al-Bajli Al-Akhmasi (ra):
أنَّ رجلًا سأل النَّبيّ وقد وضع رِجله في الغَرْزِ: أيُّ الجِهادِ أَفضلُ؟ قَالَ: «كَلِمَةُ حَقٍّ عِنْدَ سُلْطَانٍ جَائرٍ»
"... that a man asked the Prophet (saw) while he was about to ride: Which Jihad is best? He (saw) said: "The word of truth before an unjust ruler"."
2- Regarding giving support to the oppressed, including:
Allah (swt) said:
((وَإِنِ اسْتَنْصَرُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ فَعَلَيْكُمُ النَّصْرُ))
"And if they seek help of you for the religion, then you must help" [Al-Anfal: 72]
Bukhari extracted in his Sahih, from Abdullah Ibn Amr (ra), that the Prophet (saw) said:
«المُسْلِمُ أَخُو المُسْلِمِ لاَ يَظْلِمُهُ وَلاَ يُسْلِمُهُ... وَمَنْ فَرَّجَ عَنْ مُسْلِمٍ كُرْبَةً، فَرَّجَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ كُرْبَةً مِنْ كُرُبَاتِ يَوْمِ القِيَامَةِ»
"The Muslim is a brother of a Muslim, he does not oppress him nor betray him, and whosoever wanted to meet the need of his brother, Allah will meet his need, and whosoever relieves a Muslim of a hardship, Allah will remove one of his hardships on the Day of Resurrection".
Bukhari also extracted from Anas (ra), he said, that the Prophet (saw) said:
»انْصُرْ أَخَاكَ ظَالِمًا أَوْ مَظْلُومًا» قَالُوا: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، هَذَا نَنْصُرُهُ مَظْلُومًا، فَكَيْفَ نَنْصُرُهُ ظَالِمًا؟ قَالَ: «تَأْخُذُ فَوْقَ يَدَيْهِ»
"Support your brother, oppressed or the oppressor." They said, "O Messenger of Allah, supporting the oppressed is understood, but how can we support the oppressor?" He said, "Seize his hands to prevent him."
Bukhari also extracted from Al Bara' Ibn A'zib (ra), he said
«أَمَرَنَا النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه و سلم بِسَبْعٍ،... وَنَصْرَ المَظْلُومِ»
"Our Prophet (saw) commanded us with seven...and to support the oppressed".
3- And in seeking support from the people of power to establish the Islamic State when it does not exist.
Ibn Hisham extracted in the Seerah and said: "Ibn Ishaq said:...The Prophet (saw) presented himself in the seasons to the Arab tribes, calling them to Allah, and explains that he is the sent Prophet, and he would ask them to believe in him and protect him until he explains to them the message from Allah." End
Abu Al Fath, Fathudin extracted in Iyoon Al Athar and said, "Qasim Ibn Thabit mentioned from Ali Ibn Abi Talib (ra) regarding their trip, himself and Abu Bakr with the Prophet (saw): Abu Bakr (ra) said: Which tribe are you from? They said: from Banu Shaiban Ibn Tha'labah, Abu Bakr turned to the Prophet and said: I sacrifice my father and mother for you, they are from the notables in their people, and among them were, Mafrooq Ibn Amr, and Hani' Ibn Qubaisa, and Muthana Ibn Haritha, and An-Nu'man Ibn Shareek. Abu Bakr (ra) said, Did you receive the news that that He is the Messenger of Allah, here He is. Mafrooq said, We received that he so claims, so what do you call for O Quraish's brother? The Prophet (saw) stepped forward and said: "I call for testifying that there is no God but Allah and I am the Messenger of Allah, and that you shelter and support me... Hani' said (wanting Al Muthana Ibn Haritha to share the speech with him): Here is Al Muthana Ibn Haritha, our sheikh and our war chief. Al Muthana said, I heard your speech brother of Quraish, but our tribes' location is in between two borders that of Yamama and Sammama. The Prophet (saw) asked about the two borders, he answered: they are the rivers of Kisra (Ceasar) and the Arab waters... we have a pact with Kisra that allows us to stay on the condition we do not harm him nor we shelter someone who will harm him, if you wish we can shelter you and support you from the side of the Arab waters. The Prophet (saw) said: "You gave me an eloquent answer, you were truthful. But Allah's Deen will be protected by the one who secures all its borders." End
This is how the Prophet (saw) proceeded in seeking the support (Nusra) from the people of power from the tribes, so that they embrace Islam and to protect him to establish the rule of Allah over them, but they did not accept... until Allah Willed... And the Prophet (saw) sent Mus'ab to Madina and the Ansar accepted and gave the second pledge of Aqaba to the Prophet (saw), then the Prophet (saw) migrated to Madina and established the state there.
Ibn Hisham mentioned in the Seerah, "Ibn ishaq said:
"Then Mus'ab Ibn Umair returned to Mecca and the Muslim Ansar came to the fair there with the pilgrims of their people who were polytheists. They met the apostle at al-`Aqaba in the middle of the days of Tashriq, when Allah wanted to honour them and give victory to his Prophet, and give glory to Islam and its people, and bring humiliation to Kufr and its people. He said: We went out to ask about the Prophet (saw)... he said: we entered the Masjid, we saw Al Abas sitting, and the Prophet (saw) was sitting next to him, so we gave our reeting and sat down with him... Ka'b said: then we went out to perform Hajj, and we had an appointment to meet the Prophet at al-`Aqaba in the middle of the days of Tashriq. He said: when we completed Hajj, and it was the night of the appointment with the Prophet (saw), he said: we slept that night among our people in the caravan until when a third of the night had passed we went stealing softly like sand grouse to our appointment with the Prophet (saw) as far as the gully by al-`Aqaba. There were seventy-three men with two of our women: Nusayba Bint Ka'b, Umm `Umara, one of the women of Banu Mazin Bin al-Najjar, and Asma' Bint `Amr Bin`Adiy Bin Nabi, one of the women of Banu Salima who was known as Umm Mani. The Prophet (saw) recited the Quran and invited men to Allah and commended Islam and then said:
"I invite your allegiance on the basis that you protect me as you would your women and children." Al-Bara' Bin Ma'roor took his hand and said, "By Him Who sent you with the truth we will protect you as we protect our women. We give our allegiance and we are men of war possessing arms which have been passed on from father to son."
Then the Prophet (saw) said, "I am from you and you are from me, I fight whom you fight and be at peace with those you have peace with."
They asked: what would we get in return for our loyalty? He (saw) said:
"Paradise"; they said, 'Stretch forth your hand,' and when he did so they gave him the pledge.
He said the Prophet (saw) then said, "Return to your caravan." Al-`Abbas Bin `Ubada said, `By the One who sent with the Truth, if you wish it well will fall on the people of Mina tomorrow with our swords.' He replied, `We have not been commanded to do that; but go back to your caravan.'
Al Baihaqi extracted in Dala'il Al Nubowa, and said:(Al Hassan Bin Muhammad Bin Ishaq...from Az-Zubair: Muhammad Bin Muslim that Jabir Bin Abdullah Al Ansari told him... We had an appointment with Him (saw) at the gully of Al Aqaba, we gathered gradually and we met with him and said: "O Messenger of Allah! What shall we give you allegiance on?" He (saw) said: Give me your pledge to hear and obey in activity and inaction, and to spend during hardship and ease, and to enjoin the good and forbid the evil, and to say the truth fearing Allah alone, and to give me the support and protect me when I come to you in Yathrib, from that which you protect yourselves, women and children, and in return you get Paradise... so we got and gave him our allegiance one by one, on his condition and He (saw) promising Paradise in return." End
All of these evidences and many others similar to it, obliges action, it is only during the Fitna when someone cannot distinguish between the truth and falsehood, but once it's clear. It is his duty to speak the truth, and enjoin the good and forbid the evil, and support the oppressed, and seek the support from the people of power to establish the Islamic state "the guided Khilafah "Caliphate"" following the Shariah method, if the Khilafah "Caliphate" was absent. Neglecting the work for is a grave sin. If there was inaction from the Muslims, especially from the righteous from supporting the known and clear truth and stayed in their homes, corruption will spread, and the people of Baghi and falsehood will be daring and control the lives of people, in addition to the contradiction of inaction, in this case, to the obligatory Shariah text to support the truth as we explained previously.
This is the meaning of the noble hadeeth that you have inquired about, i.e. it is regarding Fitna when truth cannot be distinguished from falsehood. So how O dear inquirer is this in relation to my statement: "We turn to the Muslim armies: "Does not any man amongst you have common sense to account the rulers for their betrayal to Allah, the Messenger, and the believers? Isn't there amongst you a man who have common sense to have the protectiveness for his Deen and honour and stands against the enemies of Allah and stopping their harm? Doesn't any man amongst you have common sense to eradicate those ignorant rulers, and revives the history of the Ansar, and gives us the support in order to establish the Islamic rule, a guided Khilafah "Caliphate" upon the method of Prophethood...?" End
In which the truth in it is clear and detailed which is the call for supporting the Deen of Allah and to establish His rule, and stop the domination of the Kuffar, and to account those who betray Allah, His Messenger, and the believers... it is not a call for Fitna, nor in participation in the Fitna; but it is the call for the clear truth, no two will dispute over it, or two goats fight over it. So how does it contradict the Hadeeth of the Prophet (saw)!
And is calling Muslims to follow the Book of Allah (swt) and the Sunnah of His Messenger and answering the call to support the Deen, can ever be contradictory to what came in the Hadeeth of the Prophet (saw)?
So ponder upon this matter, May Allah have Mercy on you...
May Allah give all of us the success to bring the glory for Islam and the Muslims.
Ata Bin Khalil Abu Al-Rashtah
The link to the answer from the Ameer's Facebook page.